Such a grouping of species allows authorities to take another look at the differences between a manager and a leader. Of the six types of government guaranteed access to the first four of its structural position in the organization. Having occupied the position of the head , the individual is automatically given the opportunity to apply the rule of force , power, promotion , public officials and informational power . Ideally, the manager may have , and two other types of power – the reference and expertise . However, as ” there is no royal path to geometry “, and the organization can not automatically provide your manager these kinds of power. But it is the mastery of these kinds of power and turns the head of a leader.
D. McGregor thought leadership best form of government. By identifying himself with his head leader , striving to achieve the goals , the employee carries this identification on the target , seeing the latter as personally significant . Head thus increasingly perceived not as an individual but as a vehicle target, its incarnation . And as long as the leader demonstrates our commitment to the goal , the desire to achieve it will be maintained and the subordinate. But if the orientation of the head of the target will be weakened , then stopped and employee identification with him , that is, director ceases to be a leader. Therefore, according to McGregor , consider leadership as a performance leader as wrongly , considered as property of the gravity of items.
Referent and expert power are types of personal power, which the individual can master only through a long , persistent training or experience , and possessing certain natural instincts , charisma. A leader must have the knowledge , experience and skills, which are in themselves , regardless of their position in the organization allow it to occupy a special place among other reputable professionals. Possession of expert and referent power is often quite sufficient for the recognition of the people around the leader of the right to have all the power in the organization. But in real life, like public opinion is not enough to really become a leader in the subject of organizational power and gain the ability to control not only personal, but also organizational resources .
Literature and art abound with stories , which are based on the conflict between the subjects and organikraticheskoy personokraticheskoy authorities. Although the authors of sympathy , as, indeed , spectators and readers are always on the side of the latter , the success of the informal leader in these works , until recently, was significantly more fiction than real life situation . The real subject of organizational power, even devoid of bright leadership skills and knowledge, has a much greater organizational power, allowing him to change the behavior of all members, including those who have excellent leadership instincts .
However, this situation is in any way and at any resolution would have negative consequences for the organization . A particularly acute problem arose after the introduction ekselotsentricheskoy organizational standards, to ensure selection of the most modern organization of efficient employees at the executive level . Up until the 30 ‘s of the XX century, this rule did not apply even to lower levels of organizational management. By promoting its approach , Taylor in 1913 noted that, despite the remarkable effectiveness of the proposed methods for them to fully did not use any company ! Explaining the U.S. Commission this paradox , Taylor, with regret , saying that force workers to work and teach in a new way – only a small part of the problem . Nine -tenths of the difficulties of reform of the reason is to bring together the new functions of managers .